Chuck Berry Maybellene 1955

“Maybellene” was Chuck Berry’s debut hit and its success launched his career and established him as one of the pioneers of rock and roll music.

Berry modified a country song in order to appeal to white teenagers interested in cars and love, without including double entendres or anything that might offend.


Chuck Berry’s “Maybellene” remains a timeless rock and roll classic, being played as an indispensable dancefloor staple over generations of musicians and shaping our understanding of music today. With its catchy melody, relatable lyrics and sense of rebellion influencing future musicians to this day.

Berry began performing in St. Louis bands during the early ’50s, quickly developing his own style combining country, R&B, and blues music. With an exceptional guitar technique and natural songwriting talent, he soon wrote his own tunes – his debut recording “Maybellene” took place only 29 years after having never before entered a recording studio.

This song depicts a young man, Maybelline, falling for another young man named Bob who attempts to win her affection by showing off his V8 Ford Roadster but runs into trouble with law. It encapsulates well Berry’s signature theme of individualism versus authority which appears frequently throughout his songs.

Berry had no prior recording experience, yet was confident enough in his musical abilities to convince Leonard Chess of Chess Records to sign him. Chess was particularly impressed with Berry’s song and asked for more original material to come back later that week. That week he brought in pianist Johnnie Johnson and drummer Eddie Hardy along with four new songs; one was originally named “Ida Red” but then changed it to “Maybellene” due to potential copyright issues with Bob Wills’ hillbilly song written about Ida Red by Wills that could cause copyright issues between Wills’ song and Berry’s hillbilly song by Bob Wills that could cause copyright issues between them both artists.

Chess was delighted with their work, so decided to release it. Berry was astounded by its success; quickly rising to #1 on R&B charts and #5 on pop charts respectively. Part of Berry’s success lay in his talent as a performer; throughout his career he continued focusing on audience reactions as a means of success.

Chuck Berry was an important link between black and white audiences during an era of increasing racial tension in America, using his distinctive guitar style and clever lyrics to form a bridge that would influence popular culture for years to come.


Chuck Berry was not only an incredible musician, but also an extraordinary songwriter. His clever and emotive wordplay created songs with powerful meaning for listeners – including Dylan and Lennon! Additionally, Chuck was one of the first artists to combine country with rock n roll in their compositions.

In 1955, Berry traveled to Chicago in search of advice and encouragement from blues icon Muddy Waters. Waters provided advice and encouraged Berry to meet Leonard Chess of Chess Records label; Chess was immediately impressed by Berry’s demo for “Ida Mae,” offering him a recording contract upon listening to it – thus birthing “Maybellene.” Its combination of rhythm and blues beat, country guitar licks, Chicago blues style, narrative storytelling elements made this song truly groundbreaking compared to anything else on radio at this time!

Berry did not worry about censorship when writing his song’s risque lyrics; only one line changed from its original form; when Berry mentioned himself as a “colored boy,” this phrase was changed to “country boy” so as to avoid controversy. The stop-start rhythm added tension while Lafayette Leake played crazy keyboards to add extra outrageousness.

Berry wrote this ode to femme fatale with the intention of creating an image of someone who lures men towards danger with promises of luxurious pleasures, such as cars such as Ford V8s or Cadillac coupe de Villes. It peaked at number one on Rhythm and Blues charts and became popular among both black and white audiences; its title, Maybellene is said to have come from having found some Maybelline mascara left lying around Chess studio; in return for aggressive promotion by disc jockey Alan Freed who received co-credits or royalties as rewards – payola indeed.

Berry showcased his talent as both guitarist and pianist on the back side of this record, performing an uptempo blues grinder. His smoky blues style and vocal cadence combined elements of longing and seduction into an unforgettable sound; plus, his final wild solo was emulated by many subsequent ax players.


Maybellene was Berry’s debut studio single and single to break through into the mainstream charts, launching him onto a career. It heralded an era of rock and roll where young males fantasized about girls, cars and freedom – its stop-start rhythm and madcap piano backing make this iconic rock song with its memorable melodies, stop-start rhythm and memorable guitar solo by Berry himself; his innovative riffs revolutionized rock music at its inception.

Recorded on May 21, 1955 at Universal Recording Studio in Nashville, this track marked Berry’s first experience recording studio at age 29 and his first hit record, reaching number one on both Rhythm & Blues charts and five on Pop Charts.

Berry is often considered the founder of rock and roll due to the way in which he fused various styles together to produce something entirely unique in music – combining country guitar licks with Chicago blues and narrative storytelling to produce something completely distinct from rhythm and blues which had previously dominated radio airplay since the early 1950s. His unique sound impressed postwar teenagers and opened doors for artists such as Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins and Sam Phillips to change the face of rock ‘n roll!

Berry created “Cars and Love” from an older country tune, but changed its name to avoid legal trouble and sang it as clearly as possible in order to appeal to both black and white audiences. His aim was to connect with teenagers interested in cars while experiencing love for the first time; the song proved popular with both groups of listeners, helping make Berry an established performer.

Berry was taken aback to see that he only received a fraction of the credit owed him for Maybellene; two other writers included Alan Freed (a radio disc jockey who actively promoted it) and Russ Fratto – someone Berry had never met but knew existed – as payola payments (common in music industry at that time). This practice became known as payola.


At its inception, rock ‘n’ roll guitar was expected to be an unobtrusive rhythm instrument; however, Chuck Berry’s Gibson ES-350T on this song disproved this belief and transformed into one of the first anthems for its musical movement. Johnnie Johnson added his pounding piano along with a catchy country beat for added energy; making ‘Maybellene’ one of the most beloved hits in American popular music history and an archetypical dancefloor song from its inception through until today’s.

At 36 takes, Berry finally got his song just right – and the results spoke for themselves. As soon as he entered the studio at age 29, he knew something special was in store. At 29 he knew Chess Records would trust in his ability. After his session ended he returned confident that Chess Records had put its faith in him.

Berry’s debut single reached number one on both Rhythm and Blues charts as well as five on Country and Western and Pop charts within three weeks, and went on to be covered by various acts like Gerry and the Pacemakers in England. As its success demonstrated, this song helped open doors for other black artists in America.

Berry had experienced success, yet there were difficulties along the way. After receiving his initial royalty check, Berry discovered he was only one of three songwriters on a song: Alan Freed (disc jockey who promoted record), Russ Fratto – whom Berry never heard from before and Payola. Only years later did Berry realize how his rights had been taken advantage of.

Berry was finally given credit as the sole composer of ‘Maybellene’ nearly 30 years after its initial release on Chess Single and subsequent releases of it. His name appeared reprinted on all subsequent versions of this song.

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